#CrowdSearcher: #InformationLiteracy and questions to avoid #fakenews by justframeworks.com



  •  Identify, evaluate and avoid fake information
    Understand is able to identify, evaluate and avoid fake information, fake content and fake news.

    •  Examine yourself – your prejudice
      What do you already Really Know about your topic? What we judge to be true is governed much by our own values. All live in a so-called filter bubble, where we are fed by information that corresponds to our own world view. The problem is that we become less critical of the information we like. Search for information that does not confirm your current position to avoid that you are only looking for information that reinforces your current opinion.

    •  Find out the sender
      Can you find the original source? Often, sites have an “about” page with a presentation of the sender. Also find out who is behind the domain. Then googling the sender, preferably with several different search tools because the one you usually use is affected by your previous searches. Contact the owner and ask what it stands for, at best, you will receive an answer. Also ask friends and acquaintances you trust. Authority – Who is the author? What is their point of view? Publication & format – Where was it published? In what medium?

    •  Consider the underlying purpose
      How does the sender want to change your opinions and actions? Purpose – Why was the source created? Who is the intended audience? Consider the underlying purpose of the sender.

    •  Double-check the facts
      See if other sources say the same thing and if those sources are refuted. Otherwise, the information is not so credible and you should not spread it further. Documentation – Did they cite their sources? Who did they cite?

    •  Who is benefiting?
      Who benefits from spreading the information?

    •  Relevance?
      How old is the information, is it still relevant? Date of publication – When was it written? Has it been updated? Use “Critical Thinking”. Assuming that critical thinking is reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do, a critical thinker: 1. Is open-minded and mindful of alternatives 2. Tries to be well-informed 3. Judges well the credibility of sources 4. Identifies conclusions, reasons, and assumptions 5. Judges well the quality of an argument, including the acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence 6. Can well develop and defend a reasonable position 7. Asks appropriate clarifying questions.

    •  Be skeptical about simple solutions
      Keep in mind that information that is “this is too good to be true”, usually is not. Be skeptical about information that offers simple solutions to complex problems. Use critical thinking. Use Source criticism (information evaluation).

  •  Identify and scope – search/find information
    Able to identify a personal need for information and can assess current knowledge and identify gaps.

    •  Do you know Really What is Available?
      Identify a lack of knowledge in a subject area – regarding information and knowledge around this news or content. What about the Previous research? Current research? Knowledge overview? Identify will help you to figure out what you don´t know about your topic and how to procced. Scope will help you figure out how much you need to find out about your topic in order to have enough information. Begin willingly with topic- and subject guides (LibGuides) at the university library. Use reliable and trusty News channels about the topic, for the area of knowledge. “Know what you don’t know” – to identify any information gaps. Identify which types of information will best meet your need.

    •  Identify a search topic – using keywords and search words?
      Identify a search topic / question and define it using simple terminology. Articulate current knowledge on a topic. Recognize a need for information and data to achieve a specific end and define limits to the information need Keywords. Terms. Definitions.

    •  Background information – sufficient?
      Do you have enough background information? Use background information to underpin the search. Information from less in-depth to more in-dept information sources is needed: Example: News > Government Documents > Scholarly Journals > Books. Identify different formats in which information may be provided. Social media and multimedia formats as video, podcast and so on can complement with relevant background information and show the debate and area of conflicts etc.

    •  Apply the principles of effective searching!
      Manage time effectively to complete a search. Apply the principles of effective searching. Basic search techniques and strategies – as Boolean search – search that allowing users to combine keywords with operators (or modifiers) such as AND, NOT and OR. Get introduction how to search and retrieval data (get a good search result) from web sites, search engines, electronic journals and data bases. Advanced Searching in search engines is not the same as searching in research databases. Demonstrate and show the ability to use a range of database functionality (e.g. truncation, phrase searching, date limits, combining search terms, sorting, saving, exporting) within a single database and to interpret results (e.g. bibliographic or full text). This is vital for a good searching!

    •  Use Library guides – research and topic guides
      Using LibGudies, research and subject guides. Use the for making research in a subject easier as guiding you to the best resources in a certain subject area and organizes sources in a focused way that saves you time and effort. Identify the available search tools, such as general and subject specific resources at different levels. Note primary and secondary information sources. Don’t forget museums and their digital archive, official government information or non-profit organizations.

    •  Do you know the scientific information sources?
      Have you gained some insight into scientific information sources and having some knowledge of subject databases and scientific research journals? Is there web or online tutorials about this at the library web page? If not contact you librarian and get guidance, instructions or a coaching session.

  •  Plan – find relevant information
    Can construct strategies for locating information and data, understand and is able to do the range of searching techniques available for finding information. Differences between search tools, recognizing advantages and limitations. Why complex search strategies can make a difference to the breadth and depth of information found.

    •  Search question – do you have the right one?
      Have you clearly phrase your search question? What do you Really Want to know about your topic? Plan will equip you with some helpful tools that you might use in your research. Scope (and also narrow) your search question clearly and in appropriate language? Is the issue or the question too broad or simple? Do you have good keywords related to the search question?

    •  Define a search strategy and search tool
      Define a search strategy by using appropriate keywords and concepts, defining and setting limits. Select the most appropriate search tools. The need to develop approaches to searching such that new tools are sought for each new question (not relying always on most familiar resources).

    •  Vocabularies and taxonomies – your knowledge?
      Identify controlled vocabularies and taxonomies to aid in searching if appropriate. The value of controlled vocabularies and taxonomies in searching. Is there web or online tutorials about this at the library web page? If not contact you librarian and get guidance, instructions or a coaching session.

    •  Search techniques and specialist search tools – do you have a clue?
      You need to revise keywords and adapt search strategies according to the resources available and / or results found. Probably even identify appropriate search techniques to use as necessary. Have time to find various search tools and revise your search strategies if needed. Please identify specialist search tools appropriate to each individual information need. Searching for other formats that text/documents or open data, need knowledge about file formats and multimedia formats. Think like a specialist – how will you then search? What tools use or strategies to get relevant information in your area (adaptability needed).

  •  Manage and communicate information
    What did you learned? Processing what you find, sharing what you learned – presentation the results of Your research. Can you organize information professionally and ethically? How to spread and share information ethical is here relevant (see word of consent). Classic: Presentation formats as workshop, poster, abstract, demonstration, round table or interactive lecture or presentation. Written: Traditional paper, Thesis/Dissertation, Scholarly Journals Articles, Blog/Tweet/Other Social Media. Spoken: Class Presentation/Speech and Conference Presentation or Poster Session. Process What You Find – summarize: What do you already Know about your topic? What do you Want to know about your topic? How will you find information about your topic? What have you Learned about your topic?

    •  Reference management software – you use it?
      Use bibliographical software if appropriate to manage information. Use appropriate data management software and techniques to manage data. Note the different systems for managing references – social bookmarking tools etc. Use appropriate data management software and techniques to manage data.

    •  Cite and refer sources – a must!
      Cite printed and electronic sources using suitable referencing styles. Create appropriately formatted bibliographies. Create reference of the selected record for citation in the academic database directly if possible. The created references might need editing – this after choose export format (plain text, Harvard, Oxford, APA or the .RIS-format file etc) Is there web or online tutorials about this at the library web page? If not contact you librarian and get guidance, instructions or a coaching session. Proper citation of your sources, in whatever form, is a universal expectation and part of the ethics side of every type of scholarship.

    •  Copy Right and Creative Commons – aware?
      Show and demonstrate awareness of issues relating to the rights of others including ethics, data protection, copyright, plagiarism and any other intellectual property issues. Please meet standards of conduct for academic integrity (see more about research ethics). Here is relevant to know about Open Access, Open Educational Resources (OER) and Data Repositories such as for Open Data – this for search and retrieve information and data to use more free, creative and independent.

    •  Digital publishing and share online – active?
      Describe: What have you learned about the topic? And Where did you learn it? That individuals/students can take an active part in the creation of information through traditional publishing and digital technologies (e.g. blogs, wikis). Able to write online for different audiences, e.g. blog entry for private use, for reading by international or national citizens, students, for reading by teacher/examiner, or for reading by anyone in the world. Use Audiovisual presentation: Powerpoint/Mindmap/Other presentation software, Images, Song, Video.

  •  Digital competence – regarding fake content
    Identify and Disclose fake information. Also be aware of Internet Safety, Creative Credit and Copyright, Information Literacy, Privacy & Security, Relationship and Communication, Self-Image and Identity, Cyberbullying and “Digital drama” and also Digital Footprint & Reputation.

    •  Information processing – skillful?
      I can look for information online using a search engine. I know not all online information is reliable. I can save or store files or content (e.g. text, pictures, music, videos, web pages) and retrieve them once saved or stored. As a student: I can use different search engines to find information. I use some filters when searching (e.g. searching only images, videos, maps). I compare different sources to assess the reliability of the information I find. I classify the information in a methodical way using files and folders to locate these easier. I do backups of information or files I have stored. I can use reference management software to organize information.

    •  Communication – my competence?
      I can use advanced features of several communication tools (e.g. using Voice over IP and sharing files). I can use collaboration tools and contribute to e.g. shared documents/files someone else has created. I can use some features of online services (e.g. public services, e-banking, online shopping). I pass on or share knowledge with others online (e.g. through social networking tools or in online communities). I am aware of and use the rules of online communication (“netiquette”).

    •  Safety – my competences?
      I can take basic steps to protect my devices, (e.g. using anti-viruses and passwords). I know that not all online information is reliable. I am aware that my credentials (username and password) can be stolen. I know I should not reveal private information online. I have installed security programmes on the device(s) that I use to access the Internet (e.g. antivirus, firewall). I run these programmers’ on a regular basis and I update them regularly. I use different passwords to access equipment, devices and digital services and I modify them on a periodic basis. I can identify the websites or e-mail messages which might be used to scam. I can identify a phishing e-mail. I can shape my online digital identity and keep track of my digital footprint.

    •  Problem solving – my awareness?
      I can find support and assistance when a technical problem occurs or when using a new device, program or application. I know how to solve some routine problems (e.g. close program, re-start computer, re-install/update program, check internet connection). I know that digital tools can help me in solving problems. I am also aware that they have their limitations. When confronted with a technological or non-technological problem, I can use the digital tools I know to solve it. I am aware that I need to update my digital skills regularly.

    •  Disclose fake content – my safety rules of surfing?
      Have attention what looks suspicious. Use Netiquette. Share info about unsafe web pages or unsecure e-mails. Disclose information – make known to the public about fake content, fake news and fake information that was previously known only to a few people. Reveal and disclose fake content and fake news. Share and disclose resources that disclose fake content. Use good password. Use anti-virus and firewalls. Don’t click on unknown weblink in e-mail or web sites. Use credible websites.